The Republic of Mozambique has a very young and rural-based population. Since the end of the 15 year long civil war, Mozambique has had a high economic growth rate linked to economic reform and the revival of the agriculture, transportation, and tourism sectors. Mozambique is highly exposed to climate hazards, such as droughts, floods, and coastal storms, and will need to adapt to climate change.
Going forward, Mozambique’s development is expected to improve thanks to the country’s important reserves of coal and natural gas provided that security and stability are achieved in these regions.
Mozambique is an important EU partner in Southern Africa, as indicated in the Council Conclusions of April 2020. Despite the country’s significant economic growth in the last decade and the discovery of important reserves of natural resources, it remains one of the bottom ten countries in the world in terms of human development.
With the goal of Working Better Together, the EU and the Member States have agreed to support a pragmatic approach, which should correspond to a flexible, and country-led process confirming the findings of the 2017 joint programming evaluation.
Based on these findings, the EU and the Member States have been working together with a view to better operationalise joint programming in the country. With this aim, they adopted the 1st Joint Action Plan (JAP) in 2019, which was updated in 2021, where a 2nd EU Joint Action Plan was adopted with four agreed objectives:
- better alignment and common understanding of key priorities
- ensuring EU leverage
- enhancing joint implementation
- increasing visibility for the EU and the Member States
The MIP for 2021-2027 aims at supporting Mozambique’s transformation through economic, social, and political inclusion. With this goal, the EU will focus on the following three priority areas:
We will contribute to the search for an inclusive and sustainable development model, on the one hand, capable of balancing the acceleration expected from the exploitation of its gas resources, and on the other hand dealing with the political and social fractures still marring the country's structural cohesion. The EU is ideally placed to provide a strategic contribution to this search, encouraging the country to look at the potential of a genuinely sustainable development model, shaped by the principles of the European Green Deal.
Mozambique has a remarkably young age structure, but its potential is far from being reached. In order to unleash the youth’s full potential, we will support efforts that ensure adequate nutrition and food security, more and better investment in inclusive quality education, the creation of more employment opportunities by integrating green and digital skills into education, and business climate to support the path of sustainable growth.
Governance, Peace and a Just Society
Mozambique has launched structural reforms to ensure constitutional rights, and promote justice, good governance, public integrity, decentralization, and sustainable development. However, most governance-related indicators have followed a negative trend in recent years. Given the importance of good democratic and economic governance for the functioning of all public policies, to achieve sustainable development and a just and peaceful society, we will continue the long-standing support to the sector.
The Multiannual Indicative Programme (MIP) for Mozambique for 2021-2024 amounts to €428 million.
Priority area 1: ‘’ Growing Green’’ promotes the protection and restoration of Mozambique’s natural capital and supports the transformation of the agriculture, forestry and fishery sectors towards more sustainable food systems, livelihoods, and production patterns. Finally, it increases its low-carbon, climate-resilient and sustainable infrastructure.
Priority area 2: ‘’Growing Youth’’ advances the reduction of all forms of malnutrition, particularly stunting and micronutrient deficiency, for better development of human capital. It promotes a more inclusive and equitable quality of basic education, fosters digital transformation for inclusive growth and enhances opportunities for youth to obtain decent employment.
Priority area 3: ‘’Governance, Peace and a Just Society’’ contributes to a strengthened democratic system and economic governance frameworks for a more inclusive and just society in Mozambique. Furthermore, it enhances social cohesion and reinforces peace and stability through the humanitarian development-peace nexus.
Support measures in favour of civil society will reinforce political pluralism and civil society participation to counter shrinking civic space and democratic backsliding. Actions may include:
- supporting civic spaces and evidence-based advocacy
- participation in decision-making
- promoting collaboration between municipalities and CSOs
- advancing civic-tech activism and innovative digital tools
- strengthening CSO’s digital literacy and capacity
A Technical Cooperation Facility will be established in order to support:
- the preparation, implementation, and monitoring of programmes
- the capacity development and institutional building
- policy dialogues
- joint programming, including Team Europe coordination
- communication, including strategic communication and the fight against disinformation
- public diplomacy-specific interventions to promote EU policies
- the implementation of the Gender Action Plan III
- climate and cultural diplomacy-specific interventions to promote EU policies
- reasonable accommodation measures
- the operationalisation of the humanitarian development and peace nexus