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International Partnerships

Protecting the greater Kilimanjaro trans-frontier area

Maasai pastoralists

The Greater Kilimanjaro Trans Frontier Conservation Area (TCFA) is a critical region for elephant, lion, rhinoceros and other regionally significant wildlife. This Key Landscape for Conservation (KLC) as recognised by the European Commission spans the border of Kenya and Tanzania and includes significant protected areas as well as extensive human settlements. Expanding infrastructure and development, population growth and lifestyle changes, the expansion of agriculture have altered the balance within which people and animals have coexisted. Human-wildlife conflict (HWC) has negative repercussions for both people and wildlife as people lose crops, homes, and sometimes their lives and may retaliate by killing wildlife.

In 2018, the EU launched 3 cross-border projects in Cross-Regional Wildlife Conservation Programme for Eastern and Southern Africa and the Indian Ocean. The aim of these projects is to increase effectiveness of wildlife protection in trans-frontier conservation areas and to improve the livelihoods of communities living in or adjacent to trans-frontier conservation areas.

This programme is focusing on increasing community and law enforcement participation in the TFCA. The main tools to strengthen participation is through integrated information sharing and intelligence-led practices to combat poaching and human-wildlife conflict in the trans-frontier areas.

TFCA community stakeholders are actively collaborating to combat poaching, human-wildlife conflict, and managing and protecting the ecosysystem.

IFAW patrol vehicule


Since its start more than 80 community wildlife rangers and game scouts have been recruited and trained on bush craft, wildlife crime scene management for first responders, human-wildlife conflict indicators and mitigation, Global Positioning System (GPS), and domestic and international wildlife legal frameworks. Amongst these rangers and scouts are 2 ladies.

Through employment of community wildlife rangers’, communities are receiving income generating opportunities. This has been key in bridging the essential gap between community and law enforcement. With 80% of wildlife living in community lands, community wildlife rangers are key in ensuring their safety, that of community and the habitat.

Maasai pastoralist woman

Over 300 Morans in Kenya and Tanzania have been trained and educated on their role in protecting and preserving wildlife, the role of wildlife in tourism and biodiversity leading to comprehensive, integrated and sustainable solutions to wildlife protection.

Thanks to dynamic spatio-temporal mapping, special data infrastructure is being developed to document wildlife and ecological status of the Greater Kilimanjaro Trans Frontier Conservation Area. This data is used for wildlife and ecological monitoring systems, as well as geospatial and intelligence analysis which informs decisions to appropriately respond to threats and incidences across the ecosystem as well as to form policies that govern wildlife law enforcement and the management of the ecosystem.

Wildlife rangers

The programme has enhanced collaboration between Kenya Wildlife Service, Tanzania National Parks and community wildlife rangers in cross border law enforcement through joint security meetings and joint patrols. Up to now, 8 joint cross border patrols being conducted in Tsavo-Mkomazi areas and West Kilimanjaro/ Amboseli Regions. Apart from boosting joint efforts between Kenya and Tanzania, cross-border collaboration has proven to be effective in knowledge transfer, countering human interference within and around one of the key corridors for wildlife. This collaboration has led to the formulation of policies that govern the in-pursuit of criminals across the border.

Over 400 farmers in cultivated areas within key wildlife corridor have been trained as first responders for human-wildlife conflict, indicators of human-wildlife conflict and predation and crop raiding mitigation strategies leading to lives saved and property protection.

Maasai pastoralists

Funding instrument

European Development Fund (EDF)

Implementing organisations

International Fund for Animal Wildlife (IFAW), Big Life Foundation, African Wildlife Foundation