A landlocked country in the heart of Central Africa, Chad is one of the world’s least developed countries (LDCs). A poor economic and social performance is largely due to the fragility of institutions and lack of implementation of the rule of law, both of which discourage private initiative.
The Chadian economy is largely dependent on oil revenues which have severely decreased in recent years. Its population also suffers from the consequences of chronic malnutrition and food insecurity. Climate change is also a critical threat.
Chad is experiencing a pivotal moment in its history, following the establishment of a Council Transition Military in an interim situation. This pivotal moment is both delicate for the stability of the country and the region, and a source of opportunities for reforms to lay the foundations of a new social contract towards more democracy and more inclusive development for the benefit of the Chadian population.
The EU and Chad are long-standing partners in maintaining stability and combating terrorism in the Sahel and Lake Chad regions. The Multiannual Indicative Programme (MIP) has been formulated to have a lasting transformational impact on the stability and long-term development of the country but is flexible enough to be able to respond to short-term immediate needs, in a volatile national and regional context. The three proposed priority areas for the MIP are the following:
Governance, democratization, peace and security
In the justice sector, there are major challenges that prevent institutions from ensuring social peace and respect for human rights. It is necessary to support the performance of justice, which remains problematic for the population.
In terms of democracy, the priority for the unity and stability of the country is the implementation of the transition to a peaceful democracy. The three essential stages of the transition are: national dialogue, the adoption of a constitution draft by referendum, and the holding of presidential elections at the end of the transition.
Inclusive human development
The country's cohesion and territorial balance depend on the country's low level of human development. Chad is facing rapid urbanization which is happening in an anarchic way and causes an increase in poverty with dire social consequences. In all the indicators related to human capital, Chad is placed below the average countries of the sub-region and sub-Saharan Africa while in terms of education, available statistics from the Chadian system show that less than four out of ten children have completed primary school.
In terms of biodiversity, Chad is exposed to significant risks in terms of poaching and trafficking. The country's reservoirs of biodiversity, which still constitute a unique asset in the entire sub-region, are fragile. Given the economic, social, and environmental conditions of Chad, this MIP will support the transition towards agricultural, and sustainable systems, following the “farm to fork” strategy of the green pact.
The Multiannual Indicative Programme (MIP) for Chad for 2021-2024 amounts to €280 million.
Priority area 1: ‘’ Governance, democratization, peace and security’’ falls under the peace pillar of the new European Consensus on Development. The actions planned in this area will depend in part on the evolution of the political and security context. It will promote the fundamental and universal values of the rule of law and human rights, by supporting justice sector reforms and democratization, strengthen the link between internal security forces and citizens and support the effectiveness, accountability, and legitimacy of state institutions.
Priority area 2: ‘’ Inclusive human development’’ improves access to education and vocational training for young Chadians and ensures food security and social transfer mechanisms, through the triple nexus humanitarian-development-peace. Moreover, it increases access to essential basic services: nutrition, water, and sanitation.
Priority area 3: ‘’ Green pact’’ supports the protection of biodiversity and ecosystems, and sustainable rural development through the promotion of modernized agriculture, and accessible agri-business, toward the creation of income and employment, in a systemic and circular economy logic.
Under this MIP, the EU will continue the efforts made previously in favour of the structural reinforcement of Chadian civil society, aiming to enable its involvement in the strengthening of democratic processes and improved governance.
This multifaceted support will aim for the:
- Improvement of the legal and institutional framework
- Development of the CSO space
- Participation and policy dialogue between civil society and public authorities
- Restructuring and building capacity of civil society
- Promotion of the culture of peace and non-violence between individuals and groups
- Promotion and defence of human rights by offering support to organisations
- Empowerment of youth citizen movements